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西安论文翻译:生物科技文献翻译
发布时间:2010/11/4  阅读次数:5202  字体大小: 【】 【】【
西安论文翻译:生物科技文献翻译
  
1、                   营养液膜水培技术:
1. Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)
水培技术之一,营养液在一平缓坡度(80~100:1)的栽培床上缓缓流动,不形成液层,作物根系伸展于床面与定植盖板间的空隙层(3-5cm之间)中均匀吸收水肥,大部分根系裸露在床内潮湿的空气中,根系的水、肥、气环境优越,作物生长好,产量高。缺点是床内根际温度容易受栽培大环境的影响,温度变化比较大,同时,营养液断流的时间不宜过长,也就是供液系统不能因停电和机械故障而停止供液,否则,就容易导致作物缺水而死亡。
In the NFT, one of the hydroponics, the nutrient solution flows slowly on a cultivation bed of gentle slope (80~100:1) and does not form liquid layers, so that root systems of crops spread in the space layer (ranging from 3 to 5cm) between the bed surface and the fixing cover board and equally absorb water fertilizers, with most root systems exposed in the moist space of the bed. As a result, crops grow well with high yield due to superior water, fertilizer and air environment. However, the disadvantage is that the rhizospheric temperature within the bed is easily affected by the overall cultivation situation with obvious temperature variation. Meanwhile, the time of nutrient solution cutout can not bee too long, which means the solution supply can not be suspended due to power cut and mechanical failure; otherwise, crops will die due to lack of water.
营养液膜技术可以栽培各种果菜和叶菜,一般栽培果菜的栽培床宽度在40~60cm,床上定植双行;栽培叶菜的栽培床宽度为80~120cm,根据不同的叶菜品种可以栽4~12行不等。由于营养液膜栽培系统的床内存液量少,对床体结构的承载量要求不高,可以用木板、泡沫板及少量钢管支架制成。该套设施对供液流量的要求也不高,多数根系裸露在空气中,故不需要充氧设施。
NFT can cultivate various fruit vegetables and leaf vegetables, with the width of common fruit vegetables cultivation bed ranging from 40cm to 60cm, and twin-row fixed planting, and that of leaf vegetables cultivation bed ranging from 80cm to 120cm, and 4 to 12 rows in terms of various breeds of leaf vegetables. In the NFT, the cultivation bed does not have many solution storage and poses low requirement upon the bearing capacity of the bed structure, thus the bed can be fabricated with wood blocks, cystosepiments and a few steel pipe supports. Moreover, such equipment imposes low requirement upon the flow capacity, with most root systems exposed to air, and thereby does not need oxygen-charging facilities.    
2、                   深液流水培技术:
2. Deep Flow Technique (DFT)
水培技术的一种,栽培槽内具4~6cm不等的营养液层,作物根系部分裸露在空气中吸收氧气,大部分“悬浮”伸展于营养液中,营养液是通过从进液口不断输入和回液口不断排出实现循环“流动”的,营养液面和整个栽培床(槽)呈水平状态。由于栽培床内具有一定的液层,对作物根系的水肥供给非常有利,根部液温也比较稳定,不易受栽培大环境温度变化的影响,不必当心供液系统因停电和机械故障而停止供液的问题。
A kind of hydroponics, with the nutrient solution layer of 4cm to 6cm provided within the cultivation slot, and root systems of crops exposed in the air for oxygen absorption, most of which spread into the nutrient solution in a “suspended” manner. The nutrient solution realizes recycled “flow” by continual input from the inlet and output from the return mouth, with the nutrient solution level appearing in horizontality with the entire cultivation bed (slot). Since the cultivation bed is available with certain solution layer which is greatly advantageous for water fertilizer supply to root systems, coupled with stable solution temperature around roots free of impacts by the overall situation of cultivation, such problem as the solution supply system is suspended due to power cut or mechanical failure will no longer exist.
深液流水培技术主要适用于栽培各种叶类蔬菜,也可栽培部分果菜,栽培叶菜的栽培床宽度 80~120cm之间。
DFT is mainly applicable to cultivating various leaf vegetables, as well as partial fruit vegetables, with the width of leaf vegetables cultivation bed ranging from 80cm to 120cm.
3、                   立柱式无土栽培技术(蔬菜森林、蔬林迷宫):
3.Column Soilless Culture Technique (forest vegetables, vegetables labyrinth)
栽培柱体是由若干个高密度泡沫“栽培钵”串叠而成,栽培钵呈圆形或六角形,四周具3-5个插植孔,栽培钵底有排液孔,使整个柱体上下栽培钵能互相连通而有利于营养液的循环供给,钵内填充有利于作物根系生长的“基质体”。蔬菜苗在配套特制的定植杯中培育,成苗后插入柱体的插植孔中。整个柱体的材料主要为轻质的泡沫材料,柱中由PVC管做柱心,整体性好,搬动轻便。可以连续栽培5~10茬叶类蔬菜,连续生产10~15个月,然后需打开柱体进行残根的清理和基质、设施的消毒,从新组装后继续使用。
The cultivation column consists of several high density foam “cultivation bowls” in connection, and the cultivation bowl appears circle or hexagon, with 3 to 5 planting holes around; also, drainage holes are arranged on the bottom of the bowl, enabling the upper bowl and the lower bowl of the whole column to be linked up, which is advantageous to recycled supply of nutrient solution, with the bowl filled with “base materials” that are favorable for the growth of root systems. Vegetable seedlings are cultured in the supportive specially-made fix planting cup, and then inserted into planting holes of the column when growing up. The entire column is mainly made from light foam materials, with the PVC pipe as the column core, which is ideal in integrity and convenient in moving. It can continuously receive 5 to 10 harvests of leaf vegetables with continual production of 10 to 15 months. Then, it needs to open the column to clear up residual roots and base materials, and to sterilize the facilities for continued use after reinstallation.
柱式立体无土栽培技术主要适用于栽培矮生的花草、蔬菜、草莓、药材等作物,既可大面积进行蔬菜生产,也可用于立柱式的花草景观布置,通过采用营养液循环供液系统,可以进行自动浇水施肥,操作十分方便,是目前柱式无土栽培设施中结构最合理,适宜栽培品种最多,操作最简便的一种栽培设施。
CSCT is mainly applicable to cultivating nanous plants, vegetables, strawberries and herbs, etc., which can be used not only for large-scale vegetables production, but also for column type flower & grass sight layout. By adopting nutrient solution recycled supply system, it can also realize automated watering and fertilization, and is very convenient in operation, which is a cultivation facility with the most reasonable structure, the most cultivation capacity and the most convenient operation at present.
4、                   立体移动式管道水培技术:
4. Spatial and Mobile Pipe Technique
采用直径75~110mm的PVC管或PE管材制做“栽培管”,按栽培目标的需要布置成“栽培床”或“栽培墙”,管道成水平布放,以确保管道内的液位高度的一致性,由相应的支架做支撑或固定。管道的一头是进液口,另一头为回液口,通过间断或不间断的供液,并设定好液位高度来保持管道内的液位,一般液位高度为管道直径的1/3到2/3。管道式水培技术可以根据需要设计制作成多种栽培造型,不受地面和空间的限制,灵活性极强,既可制成固定式,也可作成可移动式。
PVC pipes or PE pipes with the diameter ranging from 75mm to 110mm are adopted to produce the “cultivation pipe”, which will be arranged into “cultivation bed” or “cultivation wall” in terms of the cultivation goal, with pipes in horizontal placement, so as to ensure the consistency of liquid level within the pipe, and some brackets are adopted for supporting or fixation. One end of the pipe is inlet and the other is returning mouth. Also, interrupted or non-interrupted liquid supplies, as well as settings of the height of liquid level, are adopted to maintain the liquid level within the pipe, with the height of general liquid level 1/3 or 2/3 of the pipe diameter. Moreover, the pipe technique can also be made into many other cultivation models according to the needs, and is free from restrictions of ground and space with strong flexibility, which can be made into either the fixed type, or the mobile type.
管道式水培技术主要适宜于栽培矮生的蔬菜,而以叶菜栽培为主。每根栽培管上按栽培品种的株距需要钻定植孔,孔径在25-45mm之间,将菜苗用海绵包裹后直接固定在定植孔中,或先栽在相应口径的营养钵中,将营养钵插入管道定植孔中即可。管道间距需按栽培品种的植株大小来考虑行距,固定或不固定,以便于定植、管理和采收。
The pipe technique is mainly applicable to cultivating nanous vegetables, especially leaf vegetables. Each cultivation pipe needs to be drilled with fix planting holes in terms of inter plant distance of the breeds, with the aperture ranging from 25mm to 45mm. To wrap vegetable seedlings with sponges and directly fix them into the fix planting holes, or to plant them into nutrition pots of proper apertures, and then to insert those nutrition pots into fix planting holes of the pipe. Pipe spacing, row spacing, and to be fixed or not need to be considered in terms of the cultivation breeds, so as to make it convenient for fix planting, management and harvest.
5、                   墙面立体无土栽培技术(生态家园):
5. Vertical Soilless Cultivation Technique (Ecological courtyard)
采用特制高密度泡沫板制成“栽培墙板”,在栽培墙板间填充有利于根系生长和吸收水肥的“基质体”。栽培墙上有倾斜向上的“插植孔”,蔬菜苗在特制的定植杯中培育,成苗后可直接插入栽培墙的插植孔中。墙面立体栽培技术可以充分利用建筑物的立体表明(具良好光照)附着固定,也可通过在栽培墙内设钢管骨架而自立成“墙”,形成双面或几何垂直多面的栽培设施。
High density cystosepiments are adopted to produce the “cultivation wall board”, with intervals between wall boards filled with “base materials” that are favorable for root systems growth and water fertilizer absorption. Upswept “planting holes” are arranged on the cultivation wall, with vegetable seedlings cultured in specially-made fix planting cups, and then directly inserted into planting holes of the cultivation wall after growing up. Moreover, VSCT can take full advantages of 3D lighting (available with favorable illumination) of architectures for adhesion type fix, and can also set up steel pipe brackets within the cultivation wall to form “walls”, so as to form double-sided or vertically multidimensional cultivation facilities.
墙面立体无土栽培技术适用于栽培各种矮生植物,包括蔬菜、花草、药材及粮食作物等。用于叶菜生产,可以使单位土地面积产量提高3倍以上,其设施结构简单、轻便,整体性强,使用操作方便,可以实现便采收、边定植的目的。该项技术把植物从地面栽培搬上了垂直面或斜面的立体空间栽培,使植物的生长空间得到最大程度的拓展,有利于缓解因城市建设占用耕地和破坏生态环境的压力,实现农作物“立体生产”和环境美化的双重效果,推广前景广阔。
VSCT is applicable to cultivating various nanous plants, including vegetables, flowers, herbs and crops, etc. If being used for leaf vegetables production, it can promote the yield per unit by over three times. Moreover, the facility is simple in structure, convenient in use, excellent in integrity, and easy in operation, which can achieve the goal of simultaneous harvest and planting. Such technique transfers the cultivation of plants from ground to cubical spaces of vertical surfaces or inclined surface, which can substantially extend the growing space for plants, help relieve pressures of farmland occupation and ecological environment damage caused by urban construction, and achieve dual effects of “3D production” of crops and landscaping. Therefore, this technique has a great prospect for popularity.
6、                   家庭园艺:
6. Home Gardening
就是根据家庭阳台、屋顶、庭院等的特点,设计大小不等的立体无土栽培设施,进行蔬菜、花卉等园艺作物的无土种植,实现轻便、安全、无污染、管理方便的家庭式新型园艺模式,通过艺术造型设计和导入营养液栽培技术,实现家庭园艺的高档化,精致化,使园艺与现代城市化发展和城市居民的生活提高协调同步发展。
It refers to various-sized spatial soilless cultivation facility designed according to characteristics of balconies, roofs and courtyards, etc. for soilless cultivation of vegetables and flowers, etc., which can achieve convenient, safe, pollution-free, and management-easy new type home gardening model. By means of artistic design and the introduction of the nutrient solution technique, it realizes top-grade and exquisite home gardening, enabling gardening to develop together with modern urban development and citizen’s living standard improvement.
7、                   漂浮水培技术:
7. Floating Hydroponics (FH)
属于深液流水培技术,其区别在于漂浮式水培的定植板是直接漂浮于栽培槽的水面上,其液深一般在15-60厘米之间,依靠大而深的营养液来为根部提供充分的生长和吸收水肥的空间,依靠加大流动的频率来补充溶氧量,栽培槽的长、宽没有严格要求,所以,是一种平面利用率较高的栽培模式,适宜于栽培水培适应性强的蔬菜和花卉品种。
It pertains to a DFT, and the difference lies in that the fix planting board in the floating hydroponics is directly floating on the water surface of the cultivation slot, with the depth ranging from 15cm to 60cm. The FH mainly depends on large and deep nutrient solution to provide root systems with sufficient spaces for growth and water fertilizer absorption, and relies on increased flowing frequency to supply dissolved oxygen, imposing no strict requirements upon the length and width of the cultivation slot. Therefore, it is a cultivation model of high plane use rate, and suitable for culturing vegetables and flowers with strong adaptability to the hydroponics.
8、                   果菜基质无土栽培技术:
8.Fruit vegetables Substrate Soilless Cultivation Technique
基质无土栽培也可以说是一种“人造土壤”的栽培,基质代替土壤的优点是人工配制的基质要比土壤疏松,透气性好,保水保肥,不携带病虫杂草,从而更有利于作物的正常生长,减少农药的使用。
The substrate soilless cultivation can be taken as “man-made soil” cultivation, and the advantages lie in that the soil is replaced by man-made loosen substrate with excellent air permeability and water & fertilizer preservation without diseases, insects and weeds, which is more advantageous for normal growth of crops and reducing the utilization of agricultural chemicals.
采用单株盆钵式基质栽培具有更多优点:能避免株间根系病虫害的传播;可以根据品种和植株大小随时调节株行距;有利于基质配制、消毒和换茬;不需要过多的固定设施,灵活性强。
The adopted single plant basin substrate cultivation has more advantages. For example, it can avoid spread of plant diseases and insect pests of root systems among plants, and can flexibly adjust plant spacing in terms of breeds and plant size; moreover, it can help substrate preparation, sterilization and crops change without too many fixed facilities. Therefore, the cultivation has great flexibility.
栽培容器的选择:高温季节可以选择泡沫箱、白色塑料盆等反光不易吸热的容器;低温季节可以选择黑色塑料盆、黑色塑料营养钵、瓦盆等易吸热的容器;以及其它各种具观赏价值的栽培容器,也可专业开发特殊功能的栽培容器。在选择和设计栽培容器时,一般把高大果类蔬菜的栽培容器体积设在8-15升之间。
Selection of cultivation containers: glistening and heat retardant containers such as bubble chambers and white plastic basins can be selected in high-temperature seasons, and heat absorbing containers such as black plastic basins, black plastic nutrition pots and earthen basins in low-temperature seasons; as well as other cultivation containers of visual values. In addition, cultivation containers of special functions can also be developed. In the selection and design of cultivation containers, the volume of cultivation containers for tall fruit vegetables can be set between 8 to 15 liters.
9、                   单株高产栽培技术(蔬园巨星):
9. Single Plant Heavy-producing Technique (Garden Giant)
通过创造蔬菜作物生长发育的最佳环境条件,为蔬菜个体生长提供无限的生长空间,通过无土栽培技术,提供最适宜的根基环境和水肥条件,使蔬菜个体的生长发育潜能得到最大程度的发挥,探索和挖掘植物的生理潜能,为蔬果作物的高产栽培寻求新的途径。通过环境调控、营养调控、植株生理调控和农艺技术的综合协调作用,进一步延长蔬菜作物的生命周期,延长和提高结果能力,实现周年或多年生长,从而提高蔬菜的单株产量,达到单位面积高产的目的。
It provides individual growth of vegetables with limitless space by creating the optimal environmental conditions for growth and development, and provides the most suitable root environment and water fertilization conditions by means of soilless cultivation, giving full play to growth and development of individual vegetable, and exploring and promoting physiological potentials of plants, so as to seek new paths for high yield of vegetables and fruits. Moreover, by combined and coordinated regulations of environment, nutrition and physiological conditions of plants, it can further extend life cycle of vegetable plants, promotes bearing capacity and realizes year-round or perennating growth, and thereby promoting single plant yield and achieving high unit yield.
现已成功地把各种具有无限生长特性的瓜类、茄果类蔬菜以及甘薯培育成树冠巨大的“蔬菜树”,从而丰富了蔬菜园中“巨星”的品种和数量。
Now it has succeeded in developing gourdvegetables, solanaceous fruit vegetables and sweet potatoes with characteristics of indeterminate growth into tree-like, huge “vegetable tree”, and thereby enriching “giant” breeds and quantities in the vegetable garden.
10、           雾气培:
10. Mist cultivation
无土栽培的一种,作物根系完全暴露在相对封闭的潮湿空气中,依靠定期向根系喷“雾状”的营养液来满足根系对水分和养分的需求,这一栽培模式的唯一优点是根系处在氧气非常充足的条件下,对水肥吸收比较有利。但缺点是不能发生停电和机械故障和喷头堵塞现象,否则,容易造成植株缺水萎蔫现象,目前,主要在叶菜生产和脱毒马铃薯微型种薯的生产中有一定面积的应用。
It is a soilless cultivation, with root systems totally exposed to the relatively enclosed moist mist, and requirements upon water and nutrients met by regularly spraying “mist-like” nutrient solution to root systems. The only advantage of the cultivation model is that roots systems can easily absorb water fertilizer in sufficient oxygen, but the disadvantage is that it can not tolerate power cut, mechanical failure and nozzle blockage, since such phenomenon probably cause plants to wilt due to water shortage. Currently, it is partially applicable to leaf vegetables production and virus-free potatoes and mini-tuber potato production.
  
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