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法律文书证词诉状的翻译举例
发布时间:2011/9/20  阅读次数:12644  字体大小: 【】 【】【
   法律文书证词诉状的翻译举例
  
第五章 证  
Chapter V  Evidence
一、证据有下列几种:
Evidence shall be classified as follows:
1、书证;Documentary evidence;
2、物证;Material evidence;
3、视听资料;Audio-visual material;
4、证人证言;Testimony of witnesses;
5、当事人的陈述;Statements of the parties;
6、鉴定结论;Expert conclusions;
7、勘验笔录。Records of inspection.
以上证据必须查证属实,才能作为认定事实的根据。
The above-mentioned evidence must be verified before it can be taken as a basis for ascertaining a fact.
二、当事人举证
The adduction of Evidence by the Parties Concerned
1、原告向人民法院起诉或者被告提出反诉,应当附有符合起诉条件的相应的证据材料。
Where the plaintiff brings an action before the people’s court, or the defendant lodges a counterclaim, the corresponding evidential material satisfying the requirements to bring an action shall be attached.
2、当事人对自己提出的诉讼请求所依据的事实或者反驳对方诉讼请求所依据的事实有责任提供证据加以证明。
没有证据或者证据不足以证明当事人的事实主张的,由负有举证责任的当事人承担不利后果。
A party concerned shall be responsible for producing evidence to prove the facts on which his claim is based, or the facts on which he rebuts the opposite party’s claim.  
Where this is no evidence or the evidence is not sufficient to prove the claim of the party concerned, the party concerned bearing the burden of proof bear the adverse consequences.
  
  

有责任提供证据加以证明。
没有证据或者证据不足以证明当事人的事实主张的,由负有举证责任的当事人承担不利后果。
A party concerned shall be responsible for producing evidence to prove the facts on which his claim is based, or the facts on which he rebuts the opposite party’s claim.  
Where this is no evidence or the evidence is not sufficient to prove the claim of the party concerned, the party concerned bearing the burden of proof bear the adverse consequences.
3、人民法院应当向当事人说明举证的要求及法律后果,促使当事人在合理期限内积极、全面、正确、诚实地完成举证。
当事人因客观原因不能自行收集的证据,可申请人民法院调查收集。
The people’s court shall explain the requirements on, and the legal consequences of producing the evidence to the party concerned, and impel the party concerned to complete the evidence adduction positively, fully, correctly, and honestly during a rational period.
The party concerned may apply to the people’s court for investigating and collecting the evidence whose collection by himself is beyond his ability due to impersonal cause.
4、下列侵权诉讼,按照以下规定承担举证责任:
The responsibility for burden of proof for the following actions of tort shall be borne according to the following provisions:
⑴ 因新产品制造方法发明专利引起的专利侵权诉讼,由制造同样产品的单位或者个人对其产品制造方法不同于专利方法承担举证责任;
In regard to an action of infringement upon a patent resulting from the a patent for invention of the manufacturing method for new products, the unit or individual that manufactures the identical or similar products shall bear the burden of proof to prove that its or his manufacturing method is different from the patented method;
⑵ 高度危险作业致人损害的侵权诉讼,由加害人就受害人故意造成损害的事实承担举证责任;
In regard to an action of tort resulting from the personal damages caused by the highly dangerous operations, the injuring person shall bear the burden of proof to prove that the victim intentionally causes damages;
⑶ 因环境污染引起的损害赔偿诉讼,由加害人就法律规定的免责事由及其行为与损害结果之间不存在因果关系承担举证责任;
In regard to an action of compensation for damages caused by the environmental pollution, the injuring person shall bear burden of proof to prove the exemption cause fixed by law, and that there is no causation between his act and the harmful consequences thereof;
⑷ 建筑物或者其他设施以及建筑物上的搁置物、悬挂物发生倒塌、脱落、坠落致人损害的侵权诉讼,由所有人或者管理人对其无过错承担举证责任;
In regard to an action of tort concerning the personal damages caused by the breakdown, drop-out, falling of a building, any other installation, or any article laid or flagged on the building, the owner or the manager thereof shall bear burden of proof for his no fault;
  
  
  

⑸ 饲养动物致人损害的侵权诉讼,由动物饲养人或者管理人就受害人有过错或者第三人有过错承担举证责任;
In regard to an action of tort resulting from the personal damages caused by the animal breeding, the animal breeder or manager shall bear burden of proof prove that the victim or a third party has any fault;
⑹ 因缺陷产品致人损害的侵权诉讼,由产品的生产者就法律规定的免责事由承担举证责任;
In regard to an action of tort resulting from the personal damages caused by any defective product, the manufacturer thereof shall bear burden of proof for exemption cause fixed by law;
⑺ 因共同危险行为致人损害的侵权诉讼,由实施危险行为的人就其行为与损害结果之间不存在因果关系承担举证责任;
In regard to an action of tort resulting from the personal damages caused by an common dangerous act, the persons committing such act shall be responsible for adducing evidence to prove that there is no causation between his act and the harmful consequences;
⑻ 因医疗行为引起的侵权诉讼,由医疗机构就医疗行为与损害结果之间不存在因果关系及不存在医疗过错承担举证责任。
有关法律对侵权诉讼的举证责任有特殊规定的,从其规定。
In regard to an action of tort resulting from a medical act, the medical institution shall be responsible for adducing evidence to prove that there is no causation between its medical act and the harmful consequences; and there is no medical fault.
If there are special provisions in the relevant laws on the burden of proof for an action of tort, such special provisions shall prevail.
5、在合同纠纷案件中,主张合同关系成立并生效的一方当事人对合同订立和生效的事实承担举证责任;主张合同关系变更、解除、终止、撤销的一方当事人对引起合同关系变动的事实承担举证责任。
对合同是否履行发生争议的,由负有履行义务的当事人承担举证责任。
对代理权发生争议的,由主张有代理权一方当事人承担举证责任。
In a contract dispute case, the party concerned that claims the establishment of the contractual relation and effectiveness of the contract shall bear burden of proof for the corresponding facts, and the party concerned that claims the variation, cancellation, termination, or dissolution of the contractual relation shall bear the burden proof for the corresponding facts.
Where there is a dispute about whether the contract is performed, the party concerned responsible for the performance thereof shall bear the burden of proof.  
Where there is a dispute about the power of attorney, the party concerned claiming the power of attorney shall bear the burden of proof.
6、在劳动争议纠纷案件中,因用人单位作出开除、除名、辞退、解除劳动合同、减少劳动报酬、计算劳动者工作年限等决定而发生劳动争议的,由用人单位负举证责任。
  
  

In labor dispute case, if an employing unit makes a decision on dismissing an employee, removing his name from the rolls, discharging him, canceling the labor contract with him, reducing the labor remunerations, calculating his length of service, etc., and a labor dispute results thereby, the employing unit shall be responsible for adducing evidence.

7、在法律没有具体规定,依本规定及其他司法解释无法确定举证责任承担时,人民法院可以根据公平原则和诚实信用原则,综合当事人举证能力等因素确定举证责任的承担。
In case that there are no specific provisions in any laws, and the burden of proof cannot be determined according to these Provisions and other judicial interpretations, the people’s court may, according to the principles of fairness and good faith, determine the burden of proof by integrating such factors as the capacity of the parties concerned to adduce evidence.
8、诉讼过程中,一方当事人对另一方当事人陈述的案件事实明确表示承认的,另一方当事人无需举证。但涉及身分关系的案件除外。
对一方当事人陈述的事实,另一方当事人既未表示承认也未否认,经审判人员充分说明并询问后,其仍不明确表示肯定或者否定的,视为对该项事实的承认。
当事人委托代理人参加诉讼的,代理人的承认视为当事人的承认。但未经特别授权的代理人对事实的承认直接导致承认对方诉讼请求的除外;当事人在场但对其代理人的承认不作否认表示的,视为当事人的承认。
当事人在法庭辩论终结前撤回承认并经对方当事人同意,或者有充分证据证明其承认行为是在受胁迫或者重大误解情况下作出且与事实不符的,不能免除对方当事人的举证责任。
In the process of an action, if one party concerned clearly indicates to admit the facts to the case stated by the other party, the other party need not adduce evidence, expect the case concerning the identification relationship.
In case that the other party concerned neither admits nor denies the facts stated by one party concerned, and still fails to clearly express his negativity or positivism after the judicial personnel’s full explanation and enquiries, the other party concerned shall be deemed acknowledging such facts.  
Where a party concerned entrusts an agent to take part in the action, the agent’s admission shall be deemed as the admission of the party concerned, unless the admission of facts by the agent without special authorization directly results in the admission of the opposite party’s claim.   The party concerned is on the scene and does not deny his agent’s admission, the agent’s admission shall be deemed as the admission of the party concerned.
Where the party concerned withdraws his admission before the conclusion of the court debate with consent of the opposite party, or has sufficient evidence to prove his admission is made under the circumstance of intimidation or serious misconstruction, and fails to accord with the facts, the opposite party shall not be exempted from burden of proof.
  
  
  

9、下列事实,当事人无需举证证明:
A party concerned need not adduce evidence to prove the following facts:
⑴ 众所周知的事实;
Proverbial facts;
⑵ 自然规律及定理;
The law of nature and theorem;
⑶ 根据法律规定或者已知事实和日常生活经验法则,能推定出的另一事实;
Another fact that may be inferred and judged from the legal rules or known facts and the routine experience and principles;
⑷ 已为人民法院发生法律效力的裁判所确认的事实;
The facts found by the judgments with legal effect of the people’s courts;
⑸ 已为仲裁机构的生效裁决所确认的事实;
The facts found by the awards with legal effect of the arbitration organization;
⑹ 已为有效公证文书所证明的事实。
The facts proved by the effective documents of notarization.
上述⑴、⑶、⑷、⑸、⑹项,当事人有相反证据足以推翻的除外。
If the party concerned holds sufficient evidence against the facts specified in Item ⑴, Item⑶, Item⑷, Item⑸, or Item⑹, evidence shall be adduced for such facts.
10、当事人向人民法院提供证据,应当提供原件或者原物。如需自己保存证据原件、原物或者提供原件、原物确有困难的,可以提供经人民法院核对无异的复制件或者复制品。
A party concerned, when providing evidence to the people’s court, shall provide the original documentation or articles. If the party concerned needs to keep the original documentation or articles as evidence, or it is difficult to provide the original documentation or articles, he may provide the copy or reproduction verified by the people’s court.
If the evidence provided by a party concerned is created out of the territory of the People’s Republic of China, such evidence shall be testified by the notarial organ of the host country, be authenticated by the embassy in this country of the People’s Republic of China, or the proving formalities shall be gone through as specified in the relevant treaty concluded by the People’s Republic of China with this country.
Where the evidence provided by the party concerned to the people’s court is created in Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan, the relevant proving formalities shall be gone through.
11、当事人向人民法院提供的证据系在中华人民共和国领域外形成的,该证据应当经所在国公证机关予以证明,并经中华人民共和国驻该国使领馆予以认证,或者履行中华人民共和国与该所在国订立的有关条约中规定的证明手续。
当事人向人民法院提供的证据是在香港、澳门、台湾地区形成的,应当履行相关的证明手续。
  
  

If the evidence provided by a party concerned is created out of the territory of the People’s Republic of China, such evidence shall be testified by the notarial organ of the host country, be authenticated by the embassy in this country of the People’s Republic of China, or the proving formalities shall be gone through as specified in the relevant treaty concluded by the People’s Republic of China with this country.
Where the evidence provided by the party concerned to the people’s court is created in Hong Kong, Macao, or Taiwan, the relevant proving formalities shall be gone through.
12、当事人向人民法院提供外文书证或者外文说明资料,应当附有中文译本。
A party concerned, when providing documentary evidence or detailed files in foreign languages to the people’s court, shall provide corresponding Chinese version.
13、对双方当事人无争议但涉及国家利益、社会公共利益或者他人合法权益的事实,人民法院可以责令当事人提供有关证据。
In regard to the facts about which the two parties concerned hold no dispute, but which concerns the state interests, public interests, or the lawful rights and interests of others, the people’s court may order the parties concerned to provide the relevant evidence.
14、当事人应当对其提交的证据材料逐一分类编号,对证据材料的来源、证明对象和内容作简要说明,签名盖章,注明提交日期,并依照对方当事人人数提出副本。
人民法院收到当事人提交的证据材料,应当出具收据,注明证据的名称、份数和页数以及收到的时间,由经办人员签名或者盖章。
A party concerned shall classify and number the evidence material submitted item by item, explain briefly the sources of such material, the object of proof, and contents, affix his signature and seal, indicate the submission date, and provide copies thereof according to the number of the opposite party concerned.
The people’s court shall, upon the receipt of the evidence material submitted by the party concerned, issue the receipt, indicate the name, number of copies, pages, receipt time of the evidence, and the handling personnel shall affix their names or seals.
  
  
  

三、人民法院调查收集证据
The Investigation and Collection of Evidence by the People’s Court
1、人民法院认为审理案件需要的证据,是指以下情形:
The evidence needed for the trial of a case in the opinion of the people’s court refers to:
⑴ 涉及可能有损国家利益、社会公共利益或者他人合法权益的事实;
Evidence concerning the facts of possible damages to the state interests, the public interests, or the lawful rights and interests of others;
⑵ 涉及依职权追加当事人、中止诉讼、终结诉讼、回避等与实体争议无关的程序事项。
Evidence concerning the procedural matters irrigated to the substantive dispute, such as adding the parties concerned ex officio, suspension of an action, conclusion of an action, withdrawal, etc.
2、除上述规定的情形外,人民法院调查收集证据,应当依当事人的申请进行。
Except the circumstances as above provisions, the people’s court shall collect evidence in accordance with the application of a party concerned.
3、符合下列条件之一的,当事人及其诉讼代理人可以申请人民法院调查收集证据;
If one of the following requirements is satisfied, a party concerned and his agent ad litem may apply to the people’s court for investigating and collecting evidence:
⑴ 申请调查收集的证据属于国家有关部门保存并须人民法院依职权调取的档案材料;
The evidence under the application for investigation and collection belongs to the documentary materials that shall be kept by the relevant authority of the state and must be transferred by the people’s court ex officio;
⑵ 涉及国家秘密、商业秘密、个人隐私的材料;
The evidence belongs to the materials concerning the state secrets, commercial secrets, or individual privacy;
⑶ 当事人及其诉讼代理人确因客观原因不能自行收集的其他材料。
The evidence belongs to other materials that cannot be collected by the party concerned and his agent ad litem themselves due to impersonal cause.
4、当事人及其诉讼代理人申请人民法院调查收集证据,应当提交书面申请。申请书应当载明被调查人的姓名或者单位名称、住所地等基本情况、所要调查收集的证据的内容、需要由人民法院调查收集证据的原因及其要证明的事实。
A party concerned and his agent ad litem, if applying to the people’s court for investigating and collecting evidence, shall file a written application. The application shall cover the background, such as the name or unit name, the domicile, etc. of the investigated, the contents of the evidence to be investigated and collected, the cause for the people’s court to investigate and collect evidence, and the facts to be proved.
  
  
  

5、当事人及其诉讼代理人申请人民法院调查收集证据,不得迟于举证期限届满前七日。
人民法院对当事人及其诉讼代理人的申请不予准许的,应当向当事人或其诉讼代理人送达通知书。当事人及其诉讼代理人可以在收到通知书的次日起三日内向受理申请的人民法院书面申请复议一次。人民法院应当在收到复议申请之日起五日内作出答复。
A party concerned and his agent ad litem, if applying to the people’s court for investigating and collecting evidence, shall not be later than seven days before expiration of the time limit for adducing evidence.
The people’s court, if disapproving the application filed by the party concerned and his agent ad litem, shall serve the corresponding notice to the party concerned or his agent ad litem. The party concerned and his agent ad litem may, within three days as of the day next to the date of receipt of the notice, apply to the people’s court accepting the application for a review in writing.   The people’s court shall make a reply within five days as of the date of receipt of the application for a review.
6、调查人员调查收集的书证,可以是原件,也可以是经核对无误的副本或者复制件。是副本或者复制件的,应当在调查笔录中说明来源和取证情况。
The documentary evidence investigated and collected by the investigating personnel may be either the original, or the true copy or reproduction thereof through verification. In regard of the copy or reproduction, the sources thereof and the situation of evidence collection shall be explained in the investigative records.
7、调查人员调查收集的物证应当是原物。被调查人提供原物确有困难的,可以提供复制品或者照片。提供复制品或者照片的,应当在调查笔录中说明取证情况。
The material evidence investigated and collected by the investigating personnel shall be the original material. The investigated personnel may provide the reproduction or photo of the original material if it is actually difficult for them to provide the original material. In regard of reproduction or photo provided, the situation of evidence collection shall be explained in the investigative records.
8、调查人员调查收集计算机数据或者录音、录像等视听资料的,应当要求被调查人提供有关资料的原始载体。提供原始载体确有困难的,可以提供复制件。提供复制件的,调查人员应当在调查笔录中说明其来源和制作经过。
The investigating personnel, if investigating and collecting the computer data, or audiovisual reference material such as sound records, video records, etc., shall require the investigated to provide the original carriers of the relevant material. The reproductions of the original carriers may be provided if it is actually difficult to provide the original carriers. In regard of the reproductions provided, the investigating personnel shall explain the corresponding sources and the situation of the making process in the investigative records.
 
  
  
  
  

9、当事人向人民法院申请保全证据,不得迟于举证期限届满前七日。
当事人申请保全证据的,人民法院可以要求其提供相应的担保。
法律、司法解释规定诉前保全证据的,依照其规定办理。
A party concerned, if applying to the people’s court for the evidence preservation, shall not be later than seven days before expiration of the time limit for adducing evidence.
If the party concerned applies for the evidence preservation, the people’s court may require him to provide the corresponding guarantee.
Other laws or judicial interpretations, if providing the evidence preservation before an action, shall prevail.
10、人民法院进行证据保全,可以根据具体情况,采取查封、扣押、拍照、录音、录像、复制、鉴定、勘验、制作笔录等方法。
人民法院进行证据保全,可以要求当事人或者诉讼代理人到场。
The people’s court may preserve evidence by means of sealing up, detention, photo taking, sound recording, video recording, reproduction, expertise, reconnaissance, making written records, etc., as the case may be.
The people’s court, for the evidence preservation, may require the parties concerned or their agents ad litemto be on the scene.
11、当事人申请鉴定,应当在举证期限内提出。当事人申请重新鉴定的除外。
对需要鉴定的事项负有举证责任的当事人,在人民法院指定的期限内无正当理由不提出鉴定申请或者不预交鉴定费用或者拒不提供相关材料,致使对案件争议的事实无法通过鉴定结论予以认定的,应当对该事实承担举证不能的法律后果。
A party concerned, if applying for an expertise, shall file it within the time limit for adducing evidence, unless the party concerned applies for the re-expertise.
If any party concerned that bears burden of proof for the matters to be under the expertise fails to file an application for expertise without tenable reasons, or fails to prepay the expertise charges, or refuses to provide the relevant material within a time limit designated by the people’s court, and the facts in dispute cannot be found without the expertise conclusion, the party concerned shall bear the legal consequences for incapability to adduce evidence for the facts.
12、当事人申请鉴定经人民法院同意后,由双方当事人协商确定有鉴定资格的鉴定机构、鉴定人员,协商不成的,由人民法院指定。
After the people’s court approves the application for expertise filed by a party concerned, the two parties concerned shall negotiate to determine the expertise organ with the expertise qualification and the expert witnesses. If the negotiation fails, the people’s court shall designate them.
 
  
  

13、当事人对人民法院委托的鉴定部门作出的鉴定结论有异议申请重新鉴定,提出证据证明存在下列情形之一的,人民法院应予准许:
If a party concerned holds any objection to the experts’ conclusion made by an expertise organ entrusted by the people’s court, reapplies for expertise, and holds evidence to prove that one of the following circumstances exists; the people’s court shall approve it:
⑴ 鉴定机构或者鉴定人员不具备相关的鉴定资格的;
The expertise organ or the expert witnesses are not qualified for the expertise;
⑵ 鉴定程序严重违法的;
The expertise procedure violates the law seriously;
⑶ 鉴定结论明显依据不足的;
The experts’ conclusion is based on insufficient evidence evidently;
⑷ 经过质证认定不能作为证据使用的其他情形。
Other circumstances in which the experts’ conclusion cannot be as the evidence upon the cross-examination.
对有缺陷的鉴定结论,可以通过补充鉴定、重新质证或者补充质证等方法解决的,不予重新鉴定。
The defective experts’ conclusion shall not be redone if it may be resolved through the supplementary expertise, the new cross-examination, or supplementary cross-examination, etc.
14、一方当事人自行委托有关部门作出的鉴定结论,另一方当事人有证据足以反驳并申请重新鉴定的,人民法院应予准许。
If one party concerned entrusts, at its sole discretion, the relevant department to make the experts’ conclusion, and the other party concerned holds sufficient evidence to deny it and reapply for the expertise, the people’s court shall permit the other party’s act.
15、审判人员对鉴定人出具的鉴定书,应当审查是否具有下列内容:
The judicial personnel shall examine whether an expertise report provided by the expert witnesses contains the following items:
⑴ 委托人姓名或者名称、委托鉴定的内容;
The name or appellation of the entrusting party, the contents under the expertise by entrustment;
⑵ 委托鉴定的材料;
Material of expertise upon entrustment;
⑶ 鉴定的依据及使用的科学技术手段;
The basis for the expertise and the scientific and technological methods used;
⑷ 对鉴定过程的说明;
The explanation on the expertise process;
⑸ 明确的鉴定结论;
The definite experts’ conclusion;
⑹ 对鉴定人鉴定资格的说明;
The explanation on expert witnesses’ qualifications;

The signatures and seals of the expert witnesses and the expertise organ
  
  

16、人民法院勘验物证或者现场,应当制作笔录,记录勘验的时间、地点、勘验人、在场人、勘验的经过、结果,由勘验人、在场人签名或者盖章。对于绘制的现场图应当注明绘制的时间、方位、测绘人姓名、身份等内容。
The people’s court shall put down records when examining the material evidence or the spot, with the examination place, time, examiners, persons on the spot, the examination process, the examination results, and the signatures or seals of the persons on the spot.   The sketch of the scene drawn shall indicate the drawing direction and time, the name and identity of the drawing person, etc.
17、摘录有关单位制作的与案件事实相关的文件、材料,应当注明出处,并加盖制作单位或者保管单位的印章,摘录人和其他调查人员应当在摘录件上签名或者盖章。
摘录文件、材料应当保持内容相应的完整性,不得断章取义。
For the excerpt of the documentation or material related to the case facts made by the relevant unit, the sources thereof shall be indicated; the seal of the making unit or the keeping unit shall be affixed; and the excerpting personnel and other investigating personnel shall affix their names or seals on the excerpt.
The excerpted documentation or material shall keep the integrality of contents, without garbled quotation.
四、举证时限与证据交换
The Time Limit for Adducing Evidence and Exchange of Evidence
1、被告应当在答辩期届满前提出书面答辩,阐明其对原告诉讼请求及所依据的事实和理由的意见。
The defendant shall defend himself before expiration of the defense period to clarify his opinions on the plaintiff’s claim and the facts and reasons.
2、人民法院应当在送达案件受理通知书和应诉通知书的同时向当事人送达举证通知书。举证通知书应当载明举证责任的分配原则与要求、可以向人民法院申请调查取证的情形、人民法院根据案件情况指定的举证期限以及逾期提供证据的法律后果。
举证期限可以由当事人协商一致,并经人民法院认可。
由人民法院指定举证期限的,指定的期限不得少于三十日,自当事人收到案件受理通知书和应诉通知书的次日起计算。
The people’s court shall serve the notice of adducing evidence to the parties concerned while serving the case acceptance notice and the notice of responding to action.   The notice of adducing evidence shall cover the principles and requirements on the allocation of burden of proof, the circumstances in which a party concerned may apply to the people’s court for investigating and adducing evidence, the time limit for adducing evidence designated by the peoples’ court according to the details of the case, and the legal consequences of providing evidence beyond the specified time limit.
The time limit for adducing evidence may be negotiated by the parties concerned, and shall be accepted by the people’s court.
The time limit for adducing evidence designated by the people’s court shall not be less than thirty days, as of the day next to the date of the receipt of the case acceptance notice and notice of responding to action by the party concerned.
  
  

3、当事人应当在举证期限内向人民法院提交证据材料,当事人在举证期限内不提交的,视为放弃举证权利。
对于当事人逾期提交的证据材料,人民法院审理时不组织质证。但对方当事人同意质证的除外。
当事人增加、变更诉讼请求或者提起反诉的,应当在举证期限届满前提出。
A party concerned shall submit the evidence material to the people’s court within the time limit for adducing evidence, and may be deemed as waiving the right to adduce evidence if he fails to submit such material during the specified time limit for adducing evidence.
The people’s court shall not organize the cross-examination in the course of the trial for the evidence material submitted by the party concerned beyond the specified time limit, unless the opposite party concerned agrees the cross-examination.
The application for adding or changing the claim, or lodges a counterclaim shall be filed before expiration of the time limit for adducing evidence.
4、诉讼过程中,当事人主张的法律关系的性质或者民事行为的效力与人民法院根据案件事实作出的认定不一致的,不受本规定第三十四条规定的限制,人民法院应当告知当事人可以变更诉讼请求。
当事人变更诉讼请求的,人民法院应当重新指定举证期限。
In the process of an action, it shall not be restricted by the provisions of Article 34 herein if the nature of the legal relationship claimed by a party concerned or the civil act’s legal force is inconsistent with the findings of the people’s court according to the case facts, and the people’s court shall inform the party concerned that he may change his claim.
If the party concerned changes his claim, the people’s court shall designate the time limit for adducing evidence anew.
5、当事人在举证期限内提交证据材料确有困难的,应当在举证期限内向人民法院申请延期举证,经人民法院准许,可以适当延长举证期限。当事人在延长的举证期限内提交证据材料仍有困难的,可以再次提出延期申请,是否准许由人民法院决定。
If it is actually difficult for a party concerned to submit the evidential material within the specified time limit for adducing evidence, he shall file an application to the people’s court for extending the time limit, and the time limit may be appropriately extended upon the permission of the people’s court. If it is actually difficult for the party concerned to submit the evidential material within the extended time limit for adducing evidence, he may reapply for extending such time limit, and the people’s court shall decide whether to approve it.
6、经当事人申请,人民法院可以组织当事人在开庭审理前交换证据。
人民法院对于证据较多或者复杂疑难的案件,应当组织当事人在答辩期届满后、开庭审理前交换证据。
Upon the application of the parties concerned, the people’s court may organize them to exchange evidence before a court session.
For a case with relatively more evidence or complicated details, the people’s court shall organize the parties concerned to exchange evidence after expiration of the defense period but before a court session.
  
  
  

7、交换证据的时间可以由当事人协商一致并经人民法院认可,也可以由人民法院指定。
人民法院组织当事人交换证据的,交换证据之日举证期限届满。当事人申请延期举证经人民法院准许的,证据交换日相应顺延。
The time for exchanging evidence may be either negotiated by the parties concerned, and shall be accepted by the people’s court, or designated by the people’s court.
If the people’s court organizes the parties concerned to exchange evidence, the date for the exchange of evidence shall be the expiration date of the time limit for adducing evidence.   If the party concerned applies for extending the time limit for adducing evidence and is approved by the people’s court, the date for the exchange of evidence shall be postponed correspondingly.
8、证据交换应当在审判人员的主持下进行。
在证据交换的过程中,审判人员对当事人无异议的事实、证据应当记录在卷;对有异议的证据,按照需要证明的事实分类记录在卷,并记载异议的理由。通过证据交换,确定双方当事人争议的主要问题。
The exchange of evidence shall be presided over by the judicial personnel:
In the course of the exchange of evidence, the judicial personnel shall put down the facts and evidence on which the parties concerned hold no objection on files, put down the objectionable evidence on files by classification according to the facts to be proved, and record the reasons for the objection.   The primal problem disputed by the two parties concerned shall be determined through the evidence exchange.
9、当事人收到对方交换的证据后提出反驳并提出新证据的,人民法院应当通知当事人在指定的时间进行交换。
证据交换一般不超过两次。但重大、疑难和案情特别复杂的案件,人民法院认为确有必要再次进行证据交换的除外。
When one party concerned contradicts the evidence from the other party concerned through the exchange and submits new evidence, the people’s court shall notify the party concerned to exchange evidence at a designated time.
The exchange of evidence shall not exceed two times, unless the people’s court deems it necessary to make another exchange of evidence for a serious case, a difficult case, or a case with complicated details.
10、《民事诉讼法》规定的“新的证据”,是指以下情形:
“New evidence” in the Civil Procedure Law refers to:
⑴ 一审程序中的新的证据包括:当事人在一审举证期限届满后新发现的证据;当事人确因客观原因无法在举证期限内提供,经人民法院准许,在延长的期限内仍无法提供的证据;
  
  

The new evidence in the course of the first instance includes: the evidence newly discovered after expiration of the time limit for adducing evidence for the first instance, and the evidence that cannot be provided by a party concerned during the time limit for adducing evidence and still cannot be provided by him during the extension upon approval of the people’s court;
⑵ 二审程序中的新的证据包括:一审庭审结束后新发现的证据;当事人在一审举证期限届满前申请人民法院调查取证未获准许,二审法院经审查认为应当准许并依当事人申请调取的证据。
The new evidence in the course of the second instance includes: the evidence newly discovered after the conclusion of court session of the first instance, and the evidence for which a party concerned applies to the people’s court for investigation before expiration of the time limit for adducing evidence (the application is not approved), and which is investigated and collected by the second instance court that considers that the application shall be approved.
11、当事人在一审程序中提供新的证据的,应当在一审开庭前或者开庭审理时提出。
当事人在二审程序中提供新的证据的,应当在二审开庭前或者开庭审理时提出;二审不需要开庭审理的,应当在人民法院指定的期限内提出。
A party concerned, if providing new evidence in the course of the first instance, shall provide it before or during the court session of the first instances.
A party concerned, if providing new evidence in the course of the second instance, shall provide it before or during the court session of the second instance, or shall provide it during the time limit designated by the people’s court in absence of court session for the second instance.
12、当事人举证期限届满后提供的证据不是新的证据的,人民法院不予采纳。
当事人经人民法院准许延期举证,但因客观原因未能在准许的期限内提供,且不审理该证据可能导致裁判明显不公的,其提供的证据可视为新的证据。
If the evidence provided by a party concerned after expiration of the time limit for adducing evidence is not the new evidence, the peoples’ court shall not accept it.
Where a party concerned is approved by the people’s court to adduce evidence during the extended time limit, and fails to provide evidence during the extended time limit due to the impersonal cause, and it may result in the evident unfairness of judgment without trying such evidence, the evidence provided by the party concerned may be deemed the new evidence.
13、“新的证据”,是指原审庭审结束后新发现的证据。
“New evidence” refers to the evidence newly discovered after the conclusion of the court session of the original trial.
当事人在再审程序中提供新的证据的,应当在申请再审时提出。
A party concerned, if providing new evidence in the course of retrial, shall provide it upon the application for retrial.
  
  
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