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核电厂专业英语词汇
发布时间:2011/1/4  阅读次数:38772  字体大小: 【】 【】【

核电厂专业英语词汇

(一)核物理基本概念
元素                     element
粒子                     particle
离子                     ion
分子                     molecule
原子                     atom
原子的                 atomic
原子核                 nucleus (pl. nuclei)
核的                     nuclear
质子                     proton
中子                     neutron
电子                     electron
核子                     nucleon
化学性质             chemical identity
带正电的             positively charged
带负电的             negatively charged
不带电的             uncharged
电中性的             electrically neutral
(元素)周期表 periodic table
原子序数             atomic number
质量数                 mass number
轨道电子             orbital electron
同位素                 isotope
天然存在的         naturally occurring
人工的                 artificial
化学键                 chemical bond
化合物                 compound
上标                     superscript
下标                     subscript
氧                         oxygen
氢,氕                 hydrogen
重氢,氘             heavy hydrogen, deuterium
重氢核,氘核     deuterion
超重氢,氚         tritium
碳                         carbon
氦                         helium
放射性的             radioactive
加权平均             weighted mean
质量                     mass
动量                     momentum
能量                     energy
单位,机组         unit
国际单位制         System International, SI
千克                     kilogram (kg)
伏特                     volt (V)
摩尔                     mole (mol)
库仑                     coulomb
电子伏特             electron-volt (eV)
兆电子伏特         mega electron-volt (MeV)
质量亏损             mass defect
结合能                 binding energy
动能                     kinetic energy
势能                     potential, potential energy
跃迁                     jump
核力                     nuclear force
排斥                     repulsion
吸引                     attraction
轰击                     bombardment
发射(出)         emission (n.), emit (v.)
能级                     energy level
裂变                     fission
聚变                     fusion
衰变                     decay
钡                         barium
硼                         boron
铋                         bismuth
铀                         uranium
钚                         plutonium
钍                         thorium
锂                         lithium
钠                         sodium
核反应                 nuclear reaction
链式反应             chain reaction
辐射,射线         radiation
超铀元素             transuranium element
可裂变的             fissionable
易裂变的             fissile
碎片                     fragment
宏观的                 macroscopic
微观的                 microscopic
介观的                 mesoscopic
激发                     excite
静电的                 electrostatic
库仑力                 Coulomb force
电磁辐射             electromagnetic radiation
  
(二)放射性

宇宙射线             cosmic ray

电离                     ionization
韧致辐射             bremsstrahlung(braking radiation)
辐射,射线         radiation
正比于                 be proportional to
反比于                 be inversely proportional to
根据经验             as a rule of thumb
a 射线                 alpha ray
b 射线                 beta ray
g 射线                 gamma ray
带电粒子             charged particle
光子                     photon
散射                     scattering
衍射                     diffraction
折射                     deflection
碰撞                     collision
铝                         aluminum
铍                         beryllium
氦                         helium
相互作用             interaction
摄入                     ingest
吸入                     inhale
动能                     kinetic energy
势能                     potential (energy)
量子                     quantum
屏蔽                     shielding
正电子                 positron
加速器                 accelerator
放射性                 radioactivity
湮灭                     annihilation
光电效应             photoelectric effect
  
(三)核反应
衰减                     attenuation
放大                     amplification
镉                         cadmium
钴                         cobalt
氧                         oxygen
氮                         nitrogen
汞                         mercury
弹性的                 elastic
非弹性的             inelastic
宏观截面             macroscopic cross section
微观截面             microscopic cross section
靶恩                     barn
反冲,反作用     recoil
平均自由程         mean free path
转变,转化         transmutation
扩散                     diffusion
中子扩散             neutron diffusion
斐克扩散定律     Fick’s law of diffusion
通量                     flux
中微子                 neutrino
放射性同位素     radioisotope
半衰期                 half-life
热核反应堆         thermonuclear reactor
化合价                 valence


(四)核材料
燃料                       fuel
燃料芯块               fuel pellet
慢化剂                   moderator
冷却剂                   coolant
包壳                       cladding
控制棒                   control rod
硼酸                       boric acid
铬                           chromium
铪                           hafnium
钆                           gadolinium
铟                           indium
镁                           magnesium
镍                           nickel
锆                           zirconium
硅                           silicon
重水                       heavy water
石墨                       graphite
碳化物                   carbide
氧化物                   oxide
氧化                       oxidize
二氧化物               dioxide
二氧化碳               carbon dioxide
碳氢化合物           hydrocarbon
密度                       density
热导率,传热系数thermal conductivity
比热                       specific heat
粘性                       viscosity
饱和                       saturation
热力性质,热物性 thermodynamic property
反应性                   reactivity
升华                       sublime
中子俘获截面       neutron capture cross section
散射截面               scattering cross section
辐照损伤               radiation damage
肿胀                       swelling
燃耗                       burnup
合金                       alloy
镁诺克斯合金       Magnox
锆合金                   zircaloy
金属间化合物       inter-metallic compound
裂变产物               fission product
裂变碎片               fission fragment
腐蚀产物               corrosion product
可燃毒物               burnable poison
冷轧                       cold pressing
烧结                       sintering
开裂                       crack
蠕变                       creep
增殖材料               fertile material
增殖比                   breeding ratio
浓缩铀                   enriched uranium
高温气冷堆           High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR)
(中子)通量展平 flux-shaping

(五)核反应堆理论

自持的链式反应 self-sustaining chain reaction
燃料循环             fuel cycle
临界 (a)               critical
次临界 (a)           subcritical
超临界 (a)           supercritical
临界 (n)               criticality
临界尺寸             critical size
共振                     resonance
弹性散射碰撞     elastic scattering collision
热中子利用系数 thermal utilization factor
慢化                     slow down
热中子                 thermal neutron
快中子                 fast neutron
六氟化物             hexafluoride
六氟化铀             uranium hexafluoride
离心工艺             centrifuge process
气体扩散工艺     gaseous diffusion process
换料 (v)               refuel
快中子增殖反应堆,快堆 Fast Breeding Reactor (FBR)
堆芯,活性区     core
再生区                 blanket
半透膜                 semi-permeable membrane
旋转                     spin (过去分词:spun)
贫铀                     depleted uranium
热中子反应堆,热堆 thermal reactor
快堆                     fast reactor
倍增系数             multiplication factor

(十)压水反应堆


压水反应堆,压水堆 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
蒸汽发生器               steam generator
一次侧                       primary side
二次侧                       secondary side
发电机                       electrical generator, generator
燃料芯块                   fuel pellet
包壳                           cladding
堆芯                           core
给水泵                       feed(water) pump
反应堆(压力)容器   reactor vessel, pressure vessel
硼酸                           boric acid
化学补偿控制           chemical shim control
堆坑                           reactor pit
气密的                       airtight
封头                           head
接管,喷嘴               nozzle
点火区                       seed
再生区                       blanket
用户,业主,业界   utility
卖主,供应商           vendor, supplier
制造商                       manufacturer
多重屏障                   multiple barriers
纵深防御                   defense in depth
冗余性                       redundancy
多样性                       diversity
独立性                       independence
包容                           contain
美国机械工程师协会 American Society of Mechanical Engineer (ASME)
美国核学会American Nuclear Society (ANS)
安全级                       safety class
失效                           failure
安全功能                   safety function
裕度                           margin
反应堆冷却剂系统   Reactor Coolant System (RCS)
在役检查                   inservice inspection
汽水分离器               moisture separator
干燥器                       steam dryer
堆内构件                   reactor internals
反应堆冷却剂泵,主泵   reactor coolant pump (RCP), main pump
稳压器                       pressurizer
波动管                       surge line
剖视图                       sectional view
控制棒                       control rod
控制棒组件               Control Element Assembly (CEA)
控制棒驱动机构       Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM)
控制棒导向管           Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT)
上部支撑板               upper support plate
燃料组件                   fuel assembly
进口接管                   inlet nozzle
出口接管                   outlet nozzle
堆芯吊篮                   core barrel
可燃吸收体               burnable absorber
管侧                           tube side
壳侧                           shell side
蒸汽管线                   steam line
一次冷却剂               primary coolant
主蒸汽                       main steam
反应性引入               reactivity insertion
浓度                           concentration
参考负荷                   reference load
冷却剂平均温度       coolant average temperature
稀释                           dilution
裂变产物                   fission product
积累                           buildup
反应堆调节系统       Reactor Regulating System (RRS)
(程序)整定值       programmed value
峰值线释热率           peak linear heat rate
轴向功率分布           axial power distribution
方位角                       azimuthal
(中子通量)方位角偏差 azimuthal tilt
偏离泡核沸腾           Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB)
偏离泡核沸腾比       Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR)
堆内测量系统         In-Core Detector System (ICDS)
自给能中子探测器 Self-Powered Neutron Detector (SPND)
信号调理                 signal conditioning
反应堆紧急停堆     reactor trip
汽机脱扣                 turbine trip
可靠性                     reliability
规范,法规             code
燃耗                         burnup

(十一)反应堆容器与堆内构件

环锻件                 ring-forging
锻造                     forge
锻件                     forging
监视                     surveillance
样品,试样         specimen
安装                     mount
奥氏体的             austenitic
不锈钢                 stainless steel
法兰                     flange
热电偶                 thermocouple
零延性转变温度 nil-ductility transition temperature (TNDT)
注量率                 fluence
集成中子通量     NVT=Total Integrated Neutron Flux = Integrated Flux = Fluence = Neutron density ´ Velocity ´ Time 【unit】:[n/m3×m/s×s]= [n/m2]
旁通,支路         bypass
磷                         phosphorous
硫                         sulfur = sulphur
焊                         weld
临界值,限值     threshold
(机)接合,啮合,对位 engage
凸缘,凸起部,轮毂   boss
逐渐变细的       tapered
圆顶                   dome
围板                   shroud

(十二)反应堆堆芯与燃料

可燃吸收棒         burnable absorber rod
蠕变                     creep
栅格                     lattice
中子源                 neutron source
阻力塞                 plug
反应性价值         reactivity worth
比功率                 specific power
锑                         antimony
镉                         cadmium
锎                         californium
铟                         indium
陶瓷(状)的     ceramic
(机)间隙         clearance
污染                     contaminate
栅格架;电网;网格   grid
因科镍                 inconel
固有安全性         inherent safety
非能动安全         passive safety
能动安全           active safety
套管,套筒       sleeve
定位格架           spacer grid
星形架,蜘蛛   spider
乏燃料               spent fuel

(十三)压水堆冷却剂系统主要设备

U形管蒸汽发生器 U-tube steam generator
核供汽系统             Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS)
一次系统               primary system
二次系统               secondary system
主蒸汽                   main steam
汽轮机,透平机械 turbine
给水与凝汽系统 feed and condensate system
热管段,热腿       hot leg
冷管段,冷腿       cold leg
堵管裕量               tube plugging margin
在¼¼情况下       in the event of
换热器                   heat exchanger (HX)
节热器,省煤器   economizer
给水                       feedwater
一次进口水室       inlet plenum
一次进口接管       primary inlet nozzle
一次出口水室       outlet plenum
一次出口接管       primary outlet nozzle
管板                       tubesheet
喷放;(SG)排污 blowdown
上升段                   riser
下降段                   downcomer
满功率                   full power (FP)
额定功率               rated power
额定负荷               rated load
化学和容积控制系统 Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS)
加热,升温           heatup
冷却,降温           cooldown
喷淋管线               spray line
辅助喷淋管线       auxiliary spray line
上充泵                   charging pump
上充                       charge
下泄                       letdown
水位                       water level, level
备用的                   backup
过压保护               overpressure protection
安全壳内换料水箱 In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST)
换料水箱             Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST)
安全阀                   safety valve
卸压阀                   relief valve
全厂断电               station blackout (SBO)
(蒸汽)干度       quality
空泡份额               void fraction
热冲击                   thermal shock
急冷,骤冷           quench

(十四)压水堆系统与安全壳

裂变碎片               fission fragment
轻水反应堆           Light Water Reactor (LWR)
热机                       thermal engine
原动机                   prime mover
焓                           enthalpy
熵                           entropy
反馈                       feedback
热力学第二定律   second law of thermo- dynamics
最终热阱               ultimate sink
一(次)回路       primary loop
二(次)回路       secondary loop
核电厂配套子项   Balance of Plant (BOP)
一次压力边界       primary pressure boundary
隔离阀                   isolation valve
失效                       failure
故障                       fault, malfuction
卡诺效率               Carnot efficiency
热机效率               engine efficiency
高温热源,热库   hot reservoir
低温热源               cold reservoir
摩擦                       friction
余热排出系统       Residual Heat-Removal System (RHRS)
换料(n)                   refueling
应急堆芯冷却系统 Emergency Core- Cooling System (ECCS)
补水与排水         feed and bleed
专设安全设施     Engineered Safety Feature (ESF)
设备冷却水系统 Component Cooling System
止回阀                 non-return valve
蓄压箱                 accumulator
电动阀                 motor-driven valve
气动阀                 pneumatic valve
安注泵                 safety injection pump
安全壳                 containment
钢筋混凝土         reinforced concrete
预应力钢筋混凝土 prestressed reinforced concrete
英制压力单位     psi = pounds per square inch
英制压力单位(表压)psig = pounds per square inch gauge
环形的                 annular
潜热                     latent heat
显热                     sensible heat
氢氧化物             hydroxide
氢氧化钠             sodium hydroxide
苛性钠,氢氧化钠 caustic
启动                     startup
飞射物,导弹     missile
蒸汽管线             steamline
安全壳地坑         containment sump

(十五)蒸汽轮机

飞轮                     flywheel
叶片,叶栅         blade, bucket, vane
功                         work
冲动式汽轮机     impulse turbine
反动式汽轮机     reaction turbine
冲动级                 impulse stage
反动级                 reaction stage
反动度                 degree of reaction
渐缩的                 converging
渐扩的                 diverging
喷嘴,接管         nozzle
被称为¼¼         be referred to as
缸体,箱体         casing
推力                     thrust
拉金                     lashing
除湿                     moisture removal
节流阀                 stop-throttle valve
扭矩                     torque
每秒¼转             rev/s = revolutions per second
每分钟¼转         rpm = revolutions per minute

(十六)主蒸汽、给水与凝汽系统

汽轮发电机           turbine generator
汽动给水泵           turbine driven feedwater pump
蒸汽排放               steam dump
汽水分离再热器   Moisture Seperator Reheater (MSR)
密封蒸汽系统               gland steam system
限流器                   flow restrictor
主蒸汽隔离阀       main steam isolation valve
机组                       unit
负荷                       load
主蒸汽集管           main steam header
给水联箱               feedwater header
给水回热循环       regenerative feed heating cycle
磨损                       wear
污垢,结垢           fouling
装量                       inventory
蒸汽(旁路)排放 steam dump
冷凝器排放           condenser steam dump
大气排放               atmospheric steam dump
除氧器排放           deoxidizer steam dump
电缆                       electric cable
辅助给水系统       auxiliary feedwater system
压差                       differential pressure, pressure differential, pressure difference
增压泵                   booster pump
增压                       boost pressure
吸入口                   suction
凝汽器                   condenser
凝汽器热阱           condenser hotwell
给水流量调节阀   feed regulating valve
给水调节旁通阀   feed regulating bypass valve
疏水                       drain
阶跃变化               step change
线性(斜坡)变化 ramp change
溢流阀                   overflow valve
工艺汽                   process steam
紧急停堆               trip; scram
停堆                       shutdown
停堆,停堆期       outrage
手动地                   manually
自动地                   automatically
质量流率               mass flow rate
关断阀                   shutoff valve
(美国)联邦管理法规 CFR = Code of Federal Regulations
凝结液                   condensate
水头,压头           head
汽机脱扣(甩负荷) turbine trip
  
(十七)核电厂运行
  
工艺热                 process heat
公用电网             utility grid
基础负荷运行   base load operation
退役的               out of service
运行因子           operation factor
负荷因子           load factor
使用因子,运行因子 service factor
可利用因子       availability
技术规范           technical specification
稳压器汽空间建立 draw a pressure steam bubble
未能紧急停堆的预计瞬变 Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS)
未能紧急停堆的预计瞬变 Anticipated Transient Without Trip (ATWT)
失电                   loss of power
失流                   loss of flow
辅助喷淋           auxiliary spray
采样                   sampling
(美国)核管会 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
负荷跟踪           load following

(十八)辐射危害与屏蔽

屏蔽                   shielding
核辐射               nuclear radiation
发射,发出       emit
剂量                   dose
剂量率               dose rate
保健物理           health physics
天然本底辐射   natural background radiation
轰击                   bombardment
地壳                   the earth’s crust
(放射性)坠尘 fallout
职业照射           occupational exposure
放射性流出物   radioactive effluent
幸存者               survivor
辐射防护           radiological protection
国际辐射防护委员会 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)
合理可行尽量低 As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA)
希弗                   Sivert
急性的               acute
慢性的               delayed
辐射病               radiation sickness
吸入                   inhalation
摄入                   ingestion
食物链               food chain
权重因子           weighting factor
活化产物           activation product
生物屏蔽           biological shield
氡                       radon
氪                       krypton
钋                       polonium
钾                       potassium
铋                       bismuth
稀有气体           noble gas
残骸                   debris
征兆                   symptom
谱                       spectrum (pl. spectra)

(十九)核安全

核安全             nuclear safety
过热                 overheating
裂变速率         fission rate
缓发中子         delayed neutron
瞬发中子         prompt neutron
后果                 consequence
破裂                 rupture
置信度             confidence
负温度系数     negative temperature coefficient
事故                 accident
堆年                 reactor-year
快堆                 fast reactor
热堆                 thermal reactor
失效安全         fail safe
三哩岛事故     Three Mile Island accident (TMI accident)
切尔诺贝利事故 Chernobyl accident
设计基准事故 Design Basis Accident (DBA)
严重事故         severe accident
熔融                 meltdown
多普勒展宽     Doppler broadening
反应性引入事故 Reactivity Insertion Accident (RIA)
冷却剂丧失事故,失水事故 Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (LOCA)
自动保护系统   Automatic Protective System (APS)
居里(活度单位) Curie
瞬发临界           prompt critical
蒸汽发生器传热管破裂 Steam Generator Tube Rapture (SGTR)
确定性安全分析 deterministic safety analysis
概率安全分析   Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA)
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